Riots break out in Vienna and Budapest as the Austro-Hungarians express mounting dissatisfaction with the war.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed between Germany and Russia.
Second Battle of the Somme marked by the German Spring Offensive, the ‘Kaiserschlacht‘ (The Kaiser’s Battle). Germans attack along a 50 mile front south of Arras.
The German Operation Michael is a complete success. They use new ‘Storm trooper’ assault teams to smash through British positions west of St Quentin, taking 16,000 British prisoners.
German assaults now reach the Somme Line. The greatest air battle of the war takes place over the battlefield as 70 aircraft are involved in a single combat.
The German offensive (Operation Mars) along the River Scarpe is halted at great loss. The American Expeditionary Force plays a vital role in the battle.
The German Spring Offensive halts outside Amiens as British and Australian forces hold the line. The second 1917 battle of the Somme ends, as Germany calls off Operation Michael.
The Battle of the Lys, marked by Operation ‘Georgette’, is the second German Spring Offensive.
The ‘Red Baron’ is shot down and killed.
Allies carry out raids against the harbours of Ostend and Zeebrugge. Obsolete vessels are driven ashore and blown up in order to blockade the entrances. Zeebrugge is partially successful; the Ostend raid fails.
The Battle of the Lys ends. Three British Divisions hold off 13 German divisions, inflicting crippling loss.
The British launch a second raid on Ostend. HMS Vindictive is this time successfully scuttled in the harbour entrance. German cruisers are no longer able to use the port.
The German Air Force launches its largest and last raid on London. Out of the 33 aircraft, 6 are lost, while 49 civilians are killed and 177 wounded.
Operation Blucher, the third German Spring Offensive assaults the French army along the Aisne River. The French are forced back to the Marne but hold the river after being reinforced by American troops.
The fourth German Offensive on the Western Front, codenamed ‘Gneisenau,’ between Noyan and Montdidier. It fails to break the French line and ends four days later.
The second Battle of the Piave River, Italy, opens with a massive offensive by the Austro-Hungarian Army. Italian and British troops first hold and then push back the attackers. Despite heavy losses the Allies destroy the Austro-Hungarian Army, precipitating the collapse of the the Empire.
The second Battle of the Marne marks the final phase of the German Spring Offensive. Allied counter attacks inflict irreplaceable German casualties. The defeat leads to the cancellation of the planned Invasion of Flanders and puts the Germans on the complete defensive.
The Russian royal family are murdered.
Air ace Mick Mannock VC, DSO and two Bars, MC and Bar kia.
The second Battle of Amiens begins (The ‘Black Day’ of the German army). German resistance is sporadic and thousands surrender. Fighting is now defined by mobility as the lines of trenches are breached.
The Battle of Samaria marks the British offensive of Palestine.
Allied victory in the Balkans.
The Great British Offensive on the Cambrai Front leads to the storming of the Hindenburg Line. The Battle of St Quentin – British and American troops launch devastating offensives, piercing the Hindenburg Line along the Canal Du Nord and St Quentin Canal.
British and Arab troops take Damascus, capturing 7,000 prisoners.
The German and Austrian peace proposal is sent to the American President, Woodrow Wilson, requesting an armistice.
The Allies advance along a 20 mile front from St Quentin to Cambrai and drive the Germans back 3 miles, taking Cambrai and le Cateau. Over 10,000 Germans are captured.
British and American troops launch attacks at the Battle of the Selle. The British liberate Lille and Douai. Belgians retake Ostend and reach Zeebrugge the following day. The whole of the Channel coast in the west of Flanders is liberated.
The British launch a night attack with all three of their armies, the First, the Second and the Fourth. This time the British advance six miles in two days. The British are now 20 miles behind the rear of the Hindenburg Line.
German sailors aboard the High Seas Fleet at Jade mutiny and refuse to engage the British Fleet.
The Turkish army surrenders to the British in Mesopotamia. Turkey signs an armistice with the Allies. Fighting ceases the following day.
German sailors mutiny at Kiel. Austria-Hungary signs an armistice with the Allies.
Armistice negotiations between the Allies and Germany begin in Ferdinand Foch’s railway carriage HQ at Compiègne
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and flees to Holland. Revolution breaks out in Berlin.
November 11 – Armistice Day
The Armistice is signed at 5.00am and comes into effect at 11.00am.
At 10.57am Canadian Private George Lawrence Price is killed while on patrol in Canal du Centre (Conde Canal). He is the last Empire soldier to die in action on the Western front.
General Von Lettow-Vorbeck surrenders his East African forces on the Chambezi River, Northern Rhodesia.
The Capitulation of Rosyth – Nine German battleships, five battle-cruisers, seven cruisers and 49 destroyers arrive off Rosyth to surrender. Thirty nine U-Boats surrender off Harwich.
The British Cavalry cross the Rhine and begin the Occupation of Cologne.
Americans cross the Rhine and occupy the bridgehead at Coblenz.
Armistice is prolonged for one month until 17th January 1919.